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tRNA Biology in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes: Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors

1
ULB Center for Diabetes Research, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
2
Division of Endocrinology, Erasmus Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020496
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 2 January 2021 / Accepted: 3 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journey inside the Beta Cells in Type 2 Diabetes)
The global rise in type 2 diabetes results from a combination of genetic predisposition with environmental assaults that negatively affect insulin action in peripheral tissues and impair pancreatic β-cell function and survival. Nongenetic heritability of metabolic traits may be an important contributor to the diabetes epidemic. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are noncoding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in protein synthesis. tRNAs also have noncanonical functions through which they control a variety of biological processes. Genetic and environmental effects on tRNAs have emerged as novel contributors to the pathogenesis of diabetes. Indeed, altered tRNA aminoacylation, modification, and fragmentation are associated with β-cell failure, obesity, and insulin resistance. Moreover, diet-induced tRNA fragments have been linked with intergenerational inheritance of metabolic traits. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of how perturbations in tRNA biology play a role in the pathogenesis of monogenic and type 2 diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; tRNA; tRNA fragments; tRNA modifications; pancreatic β-cells; obesity; insulin resistance type 2 diabetes; tRNA; tRNA fragments; tRNA modifications; pancreatic β-cells; obesity; insulin resistance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arroyo, M.N.; Green, J.A.; Cnop, M.; Igoillo-Esteve, M. tRNA Biology in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes: Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 496.

AMA Style

Arroyo MN, Green JA, Cnop M, Igoillo-Esteve M. tRNA Biology in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes: Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):496.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arroyo, Maria N.; Green, Jonathan A.; Cnop, Miriam; Igoillo-Esteve, Mariana. 2021. "tRNA Biology in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes: Role of Genetic and Environmental Factors" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 22, no. 2: 496.

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