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Fungicide Resistance in Powdery Mildew Fungi

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Fungicide Resistance Evolution and Detection in Plant Pathogens: Plasmopara viticola as a Case Study

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
2
Syngenta Crop Protection M√ľnchwilen AG, 4334 Stein, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2021, 9(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010119
Received: 15 December 2020 / Revised: 31 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 6 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungicide Resistance in Plant Pathogens)
The use of single-site fungicides to control plant pathogens in the agroecosystem can be associated with an increased selection of resistance. The evolution of resistance represents one of the biggest challenges in disease control. In vineyards, frequent applications of fungicides are carried out every season for multiple years. The agronomic risk of developing fungicide resistance is, therefore, high. Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is a high risk pathogen associated with the development of fungicide resistance. P. viticola has developed resistance to most of the fungicide classes used and constitutes one of the most important threats for grapevine production. The goals of this review are to describe fungicide resistance evolution in P. viticola populations and how to conduct proper monitoring activities. Different methods have been developed for phenotyping and genotyping P. viticola for fungicide resistance and the different phases of resistance evolution and life cycles of the pathogen are discussed, to provide a full monitoring toolkit to limit the spread of resistance. A detailed revision of the available tools will help in shaping and harmonizing the monitoring activities between countries and organizations.
Keywords: grapevine; downy mildew; oomycete; fungicide resistance grapevine; downy mildew; oomycete; fungicide resistance
MDPI and ACS Style

Massi, F.; Torriani, S.F.F.; Borghi, L.; Toffolatti, S.L. Fungicide Resistance Evolution and Detection in Plant Pathogens: Plasmopara viticola as a Case Study. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 119.

AMA Style

Massi F, Torriani SFF, Borghi L, Toffolatti SL. Fungicide Resistance Evolution and Detection in Plant Pathogens: Plasmopara viticola as a Case Study. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(1):119.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Massi, Federico; Torriani, Stefano F.F.; Borghi, Lorenzo; Toffolatti, Silvia L. 2021. "Fungicide Resistance Evolution and Detection in Plant Pathogens: Plasmopara viticola as a Case Study" Microorganisms 9, no. 1: 119.

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