Special Issue "Sustainable Railway System"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Borna Abramovi?
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Railway Transport, University of Zagreb, P-1, Facility 70, ZUK Borongaj
Interests: railway traffic organization;integrated passenger transport; traffic statistics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, the railway system plays a vital role in world transport, as well as in the economy. After surviving deterioration in 20th century, this century is the renaissance of the railway system. In the whole world, there are interesting and advanced developments in railways. This is justified because of the huge scale scientific research in railway system. Today, we use battery or/and hydrogen trains, state of the art digitalization, and we have great success to the de-carbonization of the traffic system.

Railway systems are very complex and dynamic, and they are a part of the larger transport system. So, it is very interesting to have research in railway system from the different aspects, such as (1) management, (2) technology, (3) safety and security, (4) economy, and (5) mobility. Management is an invisible vital part of railway systems, and management implementation is crucial for efficiency and effectiveness. There are different scopes of management in railway systems, with different positive examples (case studies). Technology is the most important driver for better and sustainable railway systems. Implementing new technology in railway systems is an important step for keeping the railway on track for positive changes in society today. For massive transport systems like railways, safety and security issues are the most important pillars of the system. Such systems must have a positive impact on the economy, so there is a wide field of research in this topic. Mobility is condicio sine qua non in today’s transport, and railway systems are definitely a load carrier in passenger and goods transport. The most important role of railway systems in urban, suburban, and rural passenger transport is the sustainability of the whole transport system.

Assoc. Prof. Borna Abramovi?
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Railway traffic
  • Railway system
  • Railway management
  • Railway public transport
  • Railway goods transport
  • Sustainable railway system
  • Quality of railway service

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Estimating the Price Elasticity of Train Travel Demand and Its Variation Rules and Application in Energy Used and CO2 Emissions
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020475 - 06 Jan 2021
Abstract
Investigation shows that train travel has a lower pollution impact on the environment than flight travel or car travel. A stated preferences (SP) survey can effectively obtain the data of the commuter’s response to the hypothetical train price changes beyond the scope of [...] Read more.
Investigation shows that train travel has a lower pollution impact on the environment than flight travel or car travel. A stated preferences (SP) survey can effectively obtain the data of the commuter’s response to the hypothetical train price changes beyond the scope of previous observations. To this end, based on SP survey, we estimate the price elasticity of train travel demand and analyze its variation rules. It is shown that: (1) the own-price elasticities of demand are −1.049028 during peak period and −1.090438 during off-peak period, respectively; (2) the cross-price elasticities of demand are 0.001280 for train and air and 0.001156 for train and car during peak period; and 0.001350 for train and air and 0.001230 for train and car during off-peak period; (3) the own and cross-price elasticities of demand during off-peak period are bigger than the ones during peak period; (4) when the influence factors’ influence degree is 3 or 5, the own and cross-price elasticities of demand are largest; when the influence degree is 1, the own and cross-price elasticities of demand are smallest. A result application example shows that the elasticities obtained from this paper could be used to reduce energy used and CO2 emissions effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Localization of Increased Noise at Operating Speed of a Passenger Wagon
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020453 - 06 Jan 2021
Abstract
Noise generated by railway wagons in operation is produced by large numbers of noise sources. Although the railway transport is considered to be environmental friendly, especially in production of CO2 emissions, noise is one of problems that should be solved to keep [...] Read more.
Noise generated by railway wagons in operation is produced by large numbers of noise sources. Although the railway transport is considered to be environmental friendly, especially in production of CO2 emissions, noise is one of problems that should be solved to keep the railway transport competitive and sustainable in future. In the EU, there is a strong permanent legislation pressure on interior and exterior noise reduction in railway transport. In the last years in Slovakia, besides modernization of existing passenger wagons fleet as a cheaper option of transport quality improvement, quite a number of coaches have been newly manufactured, too. The new design is usually aimed at increased speed, higher travel comfort, in which reduction of noise levels is expected. However, not always the new designs meet all expectations. Noise generation and propagation is a complex system and should be treated such from the beginning. There are possibilities to simulate the structural natural frequencies to predict vibrations and sound generated by these vibrations. However, the real picture about sound fields can be obtained only by practical measurements. Simulations of the wagon’s natural frequencies and mode shapes and measurements in real operation using a digital acoustic camera Soundcam have been done, which showed that for the calculated speeds the largest share of noise from the chassis was not radiated through the floor of the wagon, as was expected, but through the ceiling of the wagon. To improve the acoustic properties of the wagon at higher speed, it was proposed to use high-volume textile insulation in the ceiling of the wagon. The paper briefly presents modern research approaches in the search for ways to reduce internal noise in selected wagons used in normal operation on the Slovak railways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Information System and Technology Optimization as a Tool for Ensuring the Competitiveness of a Railway Undertaking—Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8915; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218915 - 27 Oct 2020
Abstract
Information and communication technologies are becoming an increasingly important part of everyday life, as they facilitate many activities, mainly in the world of work, but also in scientific research and education. At present, informatics is one of the fastest growing sectors of the [...] Read more.
Information and communication technologies are becoming an increasingly important part of everyday life, as they facilitate many activities, mainly in the world of work, but also in scientific research and education. At present, informatics is one of the fastest growing sectors of the national economy. This development has had a significant impact on improving the quality of transport and transportation processes. The article is focused on the railway transport. It deals with the possibilities of planning the shifts of the train personnel and circulation of the vehicles. It describes the background of the topic. The scientific acquittance lies on the methodology proposed by authors. It presents a new idea of creating the shifts and circulations while being based on the current state and mathematical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Efficiency of Increasing the Track Speed in the Line Section Rokycany–Plzeň hl. n.
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7415; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187415 - 09 Sep 2020
Abstract
Using simulation in OpenTrack, this paper analyses the journey of type trainsets on model infrastructure in the line section Rokycany–Ejpovice–Plzeň hl. n. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of increasing the track speed in this section. Analyzing the output [...] Read more.
Using simulation in OpenTrack, this paper analyses the journey of type trainsets on model infrastructure in the line section Rokycany–Ejpovice–Plzeň hl. n. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of increasing the track speed in this section. Analyzing the output characteristics of the simulation, selected indicators were assessed which influence the efficiency of further increases in track speed. One of the simulation scenarios is using the European Train Control System Level 2 (ETCS L2) system as the necessary condition of the speed over 160 km·h−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of Hindrance-Caused Unscheduled Waiting Time in Railway Systems
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5754; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145754 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
In real operation, railway traffic always deviates from schedule due to exogenous disturbances and disruptions, and these deviations may cause a domino effect over the whole network. Therefore, evaluating and predicting the influence of these disturbances is of significance in train operation and [...] Read more.
In real operation, railway traffic always deviates from schedule due to exogenous disturbances and disruptions, and these deviations may cause a domino effect over the whole network. Therefore, evaluating and predicting the influence of these disturbances is of significance in train operation and dispatching. Delay is a commonly used performance indicator to describe degree of these deviations, and it may propagate to other trains. The main cause of delay is the overtime occupation on exclusive blocks. However, hindrance, which evaluates the performance of railway operation from the perspective of infrastructure occupancy, is seldom studied. In this paper, a systematical description and calculation of hindrance in railway systems is introduced from the perspective of infrastructure occupancy based on blocking time theory. The railway network was modeled as several exclusive components with running directions. Based on the precedence order and length of occupancy on conflicting infrastructure components, a sequential hindrance propagation process was identified. The proposed methods were demonstrated through the case of a reference network based on railway simulations. A relationship between the overall influence of hindrance and the length of hindrance was investigated for each infrastructure component, using statistical techniques. The results proved a clear positive relationship between the overall influence of a hindrance and its length. In addition, this relationship is affected by the location of infrastructure and amount of traffic flow in the network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Proposed Methodology for the Calculation of Overview Distances at Level Crossings and the Inclusion Thereof in National Standards
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145684 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of this article is to find a rational solution for increasing the safety of level crossings in the Czech Republic on the basis of a set of representative level crossings. The Czech Republic was deliberately chosen because of its geographical location, [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to find a rational solution for increasing the safety of level crossings in the Czech Republic on the basis of a set of representative level crossings. The Czech Republic was deliberately chosen because of its geographical location, the number of level crossings on the network, and because, according to statistics from the Rail Safety Inspection Office, the country ranks as one of the highest for the number of accidents at level crossings. The rational solution being sought is one that achieves a balance between legislative, technical, and awareness-raising measures. In the practical part, great emphasis is placed on the assessment of the current state of Czech legislation. The identified discrepancies are resolved by adjusting calculations for overview distances and proposing changes to incorrect provisions. The main contribution of this paper is the comprehensive overview that it provides of level crossings and their safety. This overview includes a description of the current state of affairs, i.e., the number of level crossings, their location, classification, construction and type of equipment used, as well as an analysis of accidents and their frequency. The latter is in relation to the proposed construction and technical solution and subsequent assessment of the rationalisation possibilities and investments required to reconstruct or remove existing level crossings, thereby affecting the accident rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
A Proposal for the Account-Based Ticketing Application in Passenger Transport in the Slovak Republic: A Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5491; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145491 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
From the point of view of the national economy, the development of a transport sector is a key process which relies on many other industries. Therefore, it is inevitable to coordinate related activities and to develop the transport sector effectively, and significant synergies [...] Read more.
From the point of view of the national economy, the development of a transport sector is a key process which relies on many other industries. Therefore, it is inevitable to coordinate related activities and to develop the transport sector effectively, and significant synergies in relation to other sectors could be generated. This article deals with the issue of public passenger transport and its greater attractiveness through the account-based ticketing (ABT) technology application in the process of passenger handling. The article contains a review of the current literature on the subject, using both completed and partially completed studies. It presents the case of study of account-based ticketing in the Slovak Republic. ABT technology has already been introduced in many countries, for example, in the Netherlands in 2019, and in Singapore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainability of Railway Undertaking Services with Lean Philosophy in Risk Management—Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5298; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135298 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The sustainability of services in undertakings which operate in railway passenger transport is closely connected with efforts to provide high-quality and time-acceptable services to the customer, to achieve lean processes, to standardise work processes, to eliminate wastage and to avoid those activities which [...] Read more.
The sustainability of services in undertakings which operate in railway passenger transport is closely connected with efforts to provide high-quality and time-acceptable services to the customer, to achieve lean processes, to standardise work processes, to eliminate wastage and to avoid those activities which do not add any value. Considering its ecological nature and big volume of passenger transport, railway passenger transport represents an irreplaceable sustainable system for the future. These facts and the entry of new railway carriers into this system highlight the importance of managing risks in a progressive way. This article focuses on the options of risk management when versatile and flexible tools, such as Lean tools, are set correctly. The aim of this article is to introduce a proposal for the application and a specific application of Lean philosophy in risk management which impacts train delays in railway passenger transport. From the point of view of quantitative data analysis, multiple mathematical-statistical tests have been used to assess data (e.g., Anderson–Darling test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, Jarque–Bera test, two-tailed test, Grubbs’s test and Thompson Tau test). Also, descriptive statistics and ANOVA test (Analysis of Variance) have been applied in the process of evaluating the monitored attributes. In order to assess the data dependency, Chi-Square Test and a correlation analysis have been applied. The research outcomes focus on highlighting the need for a systematic approach for train delays and to avoid delays through risk management. The case study applies selected Lean methods to monitor train delays in selected stations within the main railway corridor of the Slovak Republic for the period from 2015 to 2018. In 2019, the results were processed and created a basis for proposing a unique software tool like an aid for risk management in the case of train delays using Lean philosophy. The flexible software includes the participation of employees, and at the same time, it respects the needs of customers. The research results provide grounds for further study of risks in a challenging environment of railway undertakings, with different types of trains, railway stations as well as entire railway networks. The processed results of the article represent valuable material for railway undertakings not only in Slovakia but also for railway organisations in V4 countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Decision-Making Process in the Case of Insufficient Rail Capacity
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5023; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125023 - 19 Jun 2020
Abstract
One of the main priorities of transport policy in the EU is to take measures to support railway transport as an environmentally friendly transport mode. An interesting challenge for a railway transport operation is represented with cost items for its operation. This problem [...] Read more.
One of the main priorities of transport policy in the EU is to take measures to support railway transport as an environmentally friendly transport mode. An interesting challenge for a railway transport operation is represented with cost items for its operation. This problem is exacerbated if transport flows are routed through a congested railway infrastructure. If some or all transport takes place on congested rail infrastructure, the carrier’s costs increase, which may ultimately lead to withdrawal from the market. The article deals with the impact of insufficient capacity on the rail carrier’s costs. We used a pre-cost calculation methodology to calculate the rail carrier’s additional costs due to the insufficient railway network capacity based on detailed calculation of train costs and proposed a methodology for carrier decision-making in case of insufficient rail infrastructure capacity. The case study showed that the use of a diversion track in case of insufficient planned rail line capacity may not be advantageous for carriers, even with a longer waiting time for capacity to be released. One of the ways to eliminate the negative effects of congested railway infrastructure is investment in the increase of its capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Data-Driven Study on the Sustainable Log Movements: Impact of Rail Car Fleet Size on Freight Storage and Car Idling
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4563; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114563 - 03 Jun 2020
Abstract
Rail car availability and the challenges associated with the seasonal dynamics of log movements have received growing attentions in the Lake Superior region of the US, as a portion of rail car fleet is close to reaching the end of its service life. [...] Read more.
Rail car availability and the challenges associated with the seasonal dynamics of log movements have received growing attentions in the Lake Superior region of the US, as a portion of rail car fleet is close to reaching the end of its service life. This paper proposes a data-driven study on the rail car peaking issue to explore the fleet of rail cars dedicated to being used for log movements in the region, and to evaluate how the number of cars affects both the storage need at the sidings and the time the cars are idled. This study is based on the actual log scale data collected from a group of forest companies in cooperation with the Lake State Shippers Association (LSSA). The results of our analysis revealed that moving the current log volumes in the region would require approximately 400–600 dedicated and shared log cars in ideal conditions, depending on the specific month. While the higher fleet size could move the logs as they arrive to the siding, the lower end would nearly eliminate the idling of rail cars and enable stable volumes throughout the year. However, this would require short-term storage and additional handling of logs at the siding, both elements that increase the costs for shippers. Another interesting observation was the fact that the reduction of a single day in the loading/unloading process (2.5 to 1.5 days) would eliminate almost 100 cars (20%) of the fleet without reduction in throughput. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of Transport Potential in Regional Rail Passenger Transport by Using the Innovative Mathematical-Statistical Gravity Approach
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3821; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093821 - 07 May 2020
Abstract
Planning the range of transport services in the selected geographical area is particularly relevant in the context of developing integrated transport systems. The aim is to build a sustainable public passenger transport system as an alternative to individual transport. Realizing quality and efficient [...] Read more.
Planning the range of transport services in the selected geographical area is particularly relevant in the context of developing integrated transport systems. The aim is to build a sustainable public passenger transport system as an alternative to individual transport. Realizing quality and efficient transport services is a comprehensive process, though there are currently no applicable principles of its proposal and creation in terms of creating the appropriate range of railway infrastructure. The paper presents the general research results focused on solving the problems of transport services in the regional passenger railway transport. The gravity model allows the study of the dependence between the population in the adjacent area, the availability of stops and the length of the transport line. A part of the research is to adjust the inputs of this model to more accurately determine the range of railway infrastructure. Based on the research of the palette of railway lines, the necessary capacity of infrastructure in terms of ensuring the required number of trains in peak hours is adjusted. The output is a proposal of the session to the calculation of transport potential and subsequently its practical application. Finally, based on its resulting values, it is possible to adjust the transport concept to set up a more efficient and higher quality timetable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
Open AccessArticle
Terrorist Threat Mitigation Strategies for the Railways
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3408; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083408 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Terrorism is an ever-present threat that is becoming more prevalent in today’s society. The railway has always been a favourable target for terrorists due to the high volume of people that utilise it, as well as the vital services it provides to the [...] Read more.
Terrorism is an ever-present threat that is becoming more prevalent in today’s society. The railway has always been a favourable target for terrorists due to the high volume of people that utilise it, as well as the vital services it provides to the nation. The railway is expanding and this will likely result in it becoming increasingly vulnerable to attack, unless new mitigation solutions are devised. In this paper risk assessment analyses by a software package conducted on different sections of the railway station provided insight into the present vulnerabilities. Mitigation solutions were devised to abolish these weaknesses in the system, to avoid terrorist exploitation. They were then evaluated to establish a workable solution: a modified version of the Thales Smart Corridor. This workable solution should be implemented across the nation to ensure passenger and rail infrastructure protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Suitability Evaluation of a Train’s Scheduled Section Travel Time
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2399; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062399 - 19 Mar 2020
Abstract
Two methods used to evaluate the suitability of a train’s scheduled section travel time (TSSTT) are theoretical modeling and data analysis. The first is suitable for newly constructed railway projects, the second can reveal the reliability of the train section running time (TSRT) [...] Read more.
Two methods used to evaluate the suitability of a train’s scheduled section travel time (TSSTT) are theoretical modeling and data analysis. The first is suitable for newly constructed railway projects, the second can reveal the reliability of the train section running time (TSRT) under an instruction of TSSTT in cases where the train operation data are provided. A suitability evaluation method of TSSTT is proposed by calculating the possibility that a train completes a task within the time windows, centering on the TSSTT given in advance. The TSRTs between two adjacent stations are classified into four groups based on whether the train dwells at the two end stations of the railway section, and then subdivided secondly into subgroups by the instruction of TSSTT given. The kurtosis of each subgroup data of TSRT is larger than 3, so Weibull distribution is selected to fit the TSRT distribution of subgroup data due to good fitness based on root measurement of the least square (SRLSM). A busy high-speed railway line in the Wuhan area of China is used to validate the presented approach. Each railway section has its own suitable TSSTT in which TSRT might achieve 96% reliability of arriving within 2.5 minutes centering on suitable TSSTT, otherwise which might not obtain 10% reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Specific Mathematical Methods in the Context of Revitalization of Defunct Intermodal Transport Terminal: A Case Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2295; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062295 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The article deals with a specific research study discussing the possibility to revitalize a specific non-functional intermodal transport terminal. The structure of the manuscript consists of five sections. The first part is focused on the analysis of the subject being investigated in important [...] Read more.
The article deals with a specific research study discussing the possibility to revitalize a specific non-functional intermodal transport terminal. The structure of the manuscript consists of five sections. The first part is focused on the analysis of the subject being investigated in important scientific publications. The second part of the article presents a brief analysis of the current situation concerning intermodal transport in the Czech Republic and emphasizes the need to build an intermodal transport terminal in the South Bohemia region. The third section describes the contemporary state of the Nemanice transshipment station, provides a calculation of the terminal transport potential, which is thereafter used in the next paper section in order to design individual terminal elements. The objective of this study is to propose an approach methodology regarding the terminal connection to railway and road infrastructure, necessary quantification of the transport potential, which subsequently defines the operational need for handling equipment, and other parameters of the terminal fundamental elements. This methodological guideline is based on variant recommendations to equip the terminal with various handling devices, which are then evaluated, applying the exact decision making methods. Such an evaluation is included in the fourth part of the article. Here, the authors try to find out which terminal equipment is the most appropriate in terms of overall terminal efficiency. The last part of the manuscript is devoted to the final discussion of the key findings and conclusion containing an insight into potential future projects or studies to be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
China Railway Express Subsidy Model Based on Game Theory under “the Belt and Road” Initiative
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 2083; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12052083 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
China Railway Express (CR Express) is an emerging freight transport mode between China and Europe, which provides a new option in addition to air transport and ocean shipping. At the initial stage of development, due to the higher freight costs compared to ocean [...] Read more.
China Railway Express (CR Express) is an emerging freight transport mode between China and Europe, which provides a new option in addition to air transport and ocean shipping. At the initial stage of development, due to the higher freight costs compared to ocean shipping, the government subsidy provided for the China Railway Express operator plays an important role in the process of market cultivation. The original intention of the government subsidy was to promote the rapid and sustainable development of China Railway Express and the further subsidy scheme should encourage China Railway Express operators to act towards the expected goal of the local government. This research is devoted to modeling and solving the problem of optimal subsidy amount in the operation of China Railway Express. Firstly, a subsidy model is established with the consideration of different objectives of local government and China Railway Express operator, which are affected by the operational effort level of the China Railway Express operator, actual freight rate and the highest freight rate that the shipper is willing to pay. Then, the validity of the proposed model is analyzed in the case study of the China Railway Express line (Wuhan–Hamburg). The effects of different subsidy amounts on the social benefits of local government and profits of the China Railway Express operator are analyzed and the sensitivity analysis is carried on the operational effort level of China Railway Express operator and the highest freight rate that shipper is willing to pay. The analysis results show that the optimal subsidy amount is between 2000 and 2500 USD per Forty-Foot Equivalent Unit (FEU). Finally, suggestions are proposed according to the analysis results. These findings can provide useful references for promoting the sustainable development of China Railway Express. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Method for Simultaneous Multi-Periodic Train Timetabling and Routing on a High-Speed Rail Network
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031131 - 05 Feb 2020
Abstract
To avoid conflicts among trains at stations and provide passengers with a periodic train timetable to improve service level, this paper mainly focuses on the problem of multi-periodic train timetabling and routing by optimizing the routes of trains at stations and their entering [...] Read more.
To avoid conflicts among trains at stations and provide passengers with a periodic train timetable to improve service level, this paper mainly focuses on the problem of multi-periodic train timetabling and routing by optimizing the routes of trains at stations and their entering time and leaving time on each chosen arrival–departure track at each visited station. Based on the constructed directed graph, including unidirectional and bidirectional tracks at stations and in sections, a mixed integer linear programming model with the goal of minimizing the total travel time of trains is formulated. Then, a strategy is introduced to reduce the number of constraints for improving the solved efficiency of the model. Finally, the performance, stability and practicability of the proposed method, as well as the impact of some main factors on the model are analyzed by numerous instances on both a constructed railway network and Guang-Zhu inter-city railway; they are solved using the commercial solver WebSphere ILOG CPLEX (International Business Machines Corporation, New York, NY, USA). Experimental results show that integrating multi-periodic train timetabling and routing can be conducive to improving the quality of a train timetable. Hence, good economic and social benefits for high-speed rail can be achieved, thus, further contributing to the sustained development of both high-speed railway systems and society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Multi-Criteria and Multi-Objective Optimization Approach for Establishing the Transport Plan of Intercity Trains
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020687 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The development of the transport plan must take into account various criteria impacting the transport process. The main objective of the study is to propose an integrated approach to determine the transport plan of passenger trains. The methodology consists of five steps. In [...] Read more.
The development of the transport plan must take into account various criteria impacting the transport process. The main objective of the study is to propose an integrated approach to determine the transport plan of passenger trains. The methodology consists of five steps. In the first step, the criteria for optimization of the transport plan were defined. In the second step, variants of the transport plan were formulated. In the third step, the weights of the criteria are determined by applying the step-wise weight assessment ratio analysis method (SWARA) multi-criteria method. The multi-objective optimization was conducted in the fourth step. The following multi-objective optimization approaches were used and compared: weighted sum method (WSM), compromise programming method (CP), and the epsilon–constraint method (EC). The study proposes a modified epsilon–constraint method (MEC) by applying normalization of each objective function according to the maximal value of the solution by individual optimization for each objective function, and hybrid methods: hybrid WSM and EC, hybrid WSM and MEC, hybrid CP and EC, and Hybrid CP and MEC. The impact of the variation of passenger flows on the choice of an optimal transport plan was studied in the fifth step. The Laplace’s criterion, Hurwitz’s criterion, and Savage’s criterion were applied to come to a decision. The approbation of the methodology was demonstrated through the case study of Bulgaria’s railway network. Suitable variant of transport plan is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Railway System)
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